Islam teaches that human beings are born sinless and pure. No one is responsible for, or can take blame for the sins of others. The doors of forgiveness are always open for those who apologize sincerely. ALLAH Almighty continuously reminds us in the Holy Quran of His infinite mercy and sympathy. Muslims are enjoined to preserve inner spiritual cleanliness through constant remembrance and prayer to ALLAH Almighty.
Islam balances the spiritual dimension by emphasizing human duties. Human beings are created with a reason. Attainment of piety is but one dimension of such reason; playing an active role in the creation of a just humanity is another. Because Muslims attach significance to what happens in this world, they have made considerable contributions to the development of science, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, geography, physics and literature.
Muslims like Avicenna and Averroes have played major roles in the development of science in the West. The initial university in the world was established by Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq in Madina, Saudi Arabia. Many critical systems such as the Arabic numerals, algebra, the initial map of the world and navigational maps were developed by Muslims and adopted by the medieval Europeans.
Apart from human duty, Islam also teaches human accountability. The last destination of human beings is the hereafter. It is believe of Muslims that, at the end of time, all human beings will be resurrected to account for their acts and deeds. Those who have performed virtuous deeds will be rewarded with everlasting bliss in heaven (jannat) and those who have performed evil acts will be punished in hell (jahannum).
Islam and War:-
The concept of jihad (wrongly translated as holy war) refers to the responsibility of Muslims to struggle for their belief and the welfare of the Muslim society. The Holy Quran does not allow aggression against anyone and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) spread His message in a peaceful manner. Warfare is allowed only in self-defence. Though, it should be noted that people only resort to violence when their fundamental human rights are violated and when all attempts at non-violent settlement are thwarted.
Islam and Human Rights:-
Islam teaches that human beings have an ethical obligation to live in harmony with one another. Islam also recognizes and accords rights to all human beings regardless of race, color or creed. Islam requires its followers to show tolerance and respect even to those who do not share their belief.
Freedom of sense of right and wrong is guaranteed by the Holy Quran itself. It states in verse 2:256 of Holy Quran,
There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in ALLAH has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And ALLAH is Hearing and Knowing.